National Journal of Advanced Research

National Journal of Advanced Research


National Journal of Advanced Research
National Journal of Advanced Research
Vol. 4, Issue 2 (2018)

Prevalence and antibiogram of nosocomial bacteria isolated from hospital environment


Unegbu Nnachetam Valetine, Nkwoemeka Ndidi Ethel, Ezebialu Chinenye Uzoamaka, Ezennia Obioma Jennifer, Egwuatu Pius

Nosocomial bacteria are bacteria causing diseases that are obtained from the hospital environment; they are acquired from the hospital environment within few days of admission into the hospital or other health care facilities and are responsible for nosocomial infections. This study was therefore carried out to assess the prevalence and antibiogram of nosocomial bacteria isolated from hospital wards in a tertiary hospital. A total number of 300 specimens were collected from 6 different wards which include male medical wards, female medical wards, male surgical wards, female surgical wards, pediatrics wards, maternity wards and hospital surfaces were collected screened. Subsequent identification was done based on morphology, and biochemical tests. Kirby-Bauer-Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) modified single disc diffusion technique was used to determine the antibiogram profile of the bacteria isolates. The total percentage prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 19.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 32.1%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 11.8%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6.6%, Streptococcus pyogenes 4.7% and Escherichia coli 25.5%. Male medical ward had the highest prevalence of 35.4% while the least prevalence was pediatrics ward 2.8%. Bacterial isolates were most prevalent in toilet seat with 48(22.6%) cases while the least was found in operating tables with 2(0.9%) cases. The difference in the prevalence of the bacteria in the hospital wards was not statistically significant. Ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid and amikacin were 93%, 93% and 93.4% effective against all isolated bacteria. All the bacteria were 54.7% resistant to chloramphenicol, 52.8% resistant to ceftriaxone and 51.4% to tetracycline. The multiple antibiotic resistance indexes of the 17 isolates were in the range of 0.2 – 0.6. Hospital wards, inanimate surfaces in hospital environment and hands of health care workers are reservoirs of bacteria including the multidrug-resistant bacteria. The widespread use of antimicrobials, especially overused or underused or inappropriate use of antibiotics, has contributed to an increased resistance among bacteria. These findings therefore justify the need to carry out detailed studies on the prevalence of nosocomial bacteria in this town, with a view of finding the causes, attendant effect and remedial solutions.
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