Activated carbon materials are traditional chemical adsorbents because of their very high specific surface area and high micropore volume. Recent industrial attention has been drawn to activated carbon fiber and textiles. Conversion of textile materials into active carbon products is a cutting-edge technology overlapped by fiber/textile manufacturing and polymer thermo chemical processes. As an introduction, this chapter begins with an overview of the evolution of uses and production of activated carbon materials from activated carbon particles to activated carbon fiber. Following this is a discussion about scientific and engineering features of activated carbon materials relevant to textile processes, thermo chemical processes, and material structure and properties. To give a sense of production cost effectiveness, a comparison of production cost between activated carbon fiber and granular activated carbon is exhibited. Finally, the chapter provides an outlook on the present market and further development of activated carbon materials, including current market shares, end-use applications, and future trends.